Roles of folic acid during pregnancy

 Fetal neural tube formation:

 Folic acid is necessary for the division of nervous system cells and the development of the fetal nervous system.  Due to the fact that the neural tube of the fetus is formed in the first 28 days of pregnancy, that is, when a person may not even be aware of his pregnancy, folic acid deficiency can cause defects in the formation of the neural tube of the fetus and the occurrence of disorders in this field. For this reason, reputable medical authorities in the world recommend that all women who are likely to become pregnant (from puberty to menopause) consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily. Some of these disorders caused by folic acid deficiency are: spina bifida (remaining the base of the vertebrae which causes the spinal cord and nerves to be exposed);  Anencephaly (congenital absence of brain and spinal cord);  and encephalocele (extrusion of the brain inside a cavity in the skull wall).

b) Prevention of megaloblastic anemia in pregnant mother and fetus:

 Megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia (enlargement of red blood cells) is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12 or folic acid, in which red blood cells are formed incompletely and do not have the ability to transport oxygen.  The recommended daily intake of folic acid for pregnant women is approximately 800 micrograms.

c) Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy causes cleft palate and cleft palate in the fetus.

Signs and symptoms of folic acid deficiency:

 Destruction of the mucosa of the digestive tract, reduction of absorption of nutrients, diarrhea, anorexia and weight loss

 Fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath and reduced concentration

 Decreased platelet production and increased risk of abnormal bleeding

 Impaired development of white blood cells and reduced immune response

 Elevation of blood homocysteine ​​and increased risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of blood vessels)

 Defects in the growth and development of the fetal neural tube and the occurrence of congenital abnormalities

 Megaloblastic anemia

 Disorder of growth and development

 hair loss

Super beneficial fruits and vegetables

 Today, extensive research has been done on the practicality of fruits and vegetables with yellow, orange and green colors.

 The beneficial effects of these plants have been attributed to their fiber content and some compounds in them such as flavonoids and antioxidant pigments.

 Pigments in fruits and vegetables such as carrots, radishes, tomatoes, spinach, oranges, tangerines, apricots, mangoes, peaches, nectarines, melons, watermelons, pumpkins, peas, sweet corn, and flavonoids in soybeans, tea, cocoa, broccoli,  Garlic, turmeric, sour cherries and many berries are found in abundance.

 These compounds can neutralize the harmful radicals resulting from the oxidation reactions created in the body and reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, asthma, arthritis and vision disorders.

 It is necessary to know that heat or short-term cooking of colorful vegetables and fruits in a small amount of vegetable oil can increase the absorption of pigments several times.

 For example, the absorption power of tomato pigment in its processed products such as paste and sauce is high. Also, mixing milk with carrot juice will help better absorption of carrot pigments due to milk fat.

 Of course, it is not bad to know that receiving antioxidant compounds from the diet in a short period of time will not have much effect on health or preventing the occurrence of diseases.

 Taking too much of these compounds does not have any side effects or symptoms of poisoning, and only excess of yellow and orange fruits causes skin color change, especially in the areas of the hands, feet, and face.

Signs and symptoms of deficiency of water-soluble vitamins

 Vitamin B1: causes anorexia in the early stages. Prolonged deficiency of thiamine causes Beriberi disease.  Alcoholic patients with chronic thiamine deficiency may have central nervous system manifestations.

 Vitamin B2: Riboflavin deficiency is rare in humans. The most common symptom of riboflavin deficiency is paleness of the mucous membrane, sores at the corners of the mouth.  Decreased visual acuity, dry and burning eyes, cataracts, inflammation of scleral vessels.

 Vitamin B3: Vitamin B3 deficiency is rare in humans. Symptoms of vitamin B3 deficiency include numbness of the big toe, myalgia (extreme fatigue), fatigue, headache, insomnia, intestinal dysfunction, paresthesia of hands and feet, and antibody production disorder.

 Folic acid (vitamin B9): In the early stages, the blood level of homocysteine ​​may increase. As a result of continuous deficiency of folic acid, megaloblastic anemia occurs.

 Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 deficiency initially manifests as anemia and neurological changes.  As a result of vitamin B12 deficiency, pernicious anemia (dangerous) occurs.

 Pernicious anemia is a type of megaloblastic anemia caused by the reaction of the body’s defense system against the cells of the stomach wall. The cells of the stomach wall secrete intrinsic factor, which is necessary to absorb vitamin B12 from food. Therefore, the destruction of cells  Stomach wall causes the lack of intrinsic factor and as a result, decreased absorption of vitamin B12.

 Vitamin C: severe deficiency of vitamin C causes scurvy and is associated with bleeding manifestations and dysfunction of the immune system.

 Vitamin H (Biotin): Some symptoms of biotin deficiency include dry and scaly skin, anorexia, seborrheic dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and neurological disorders.


 Vitamins are organic compounds that are needed in small amounts to carry out specific metabolic actions and therefore must be present in the diet. These substances are necessarily made in the body of living organisms.  These substances are necessary for biochemical reactions in the body.

 How many categories are vitamins divided into?

Vitamins are divided into two groups, water-soluble and fat-soluble.

 Water soluble vitamins include the following.

 “It should be noted that these vitamins are excreted through urine and are not dangerous if they are consumed even up to ten times the RDA.”

 The group of B vitamins includes: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 ​​(pyridoxine, pyrodoxal, pyrodoxamine), B9 (acid folic or folate), B12 (cyanocobalamin), H(biotin) and vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

Fat soluble vitamins include the following vitamins.  Since these vitamins are stored in the body, they should be used carefully and cautiously because they may cause poisoning.

 A (retinol, retinal, retinoic acid), D (cholecalciferol), E (tocopherol), K (phytonadione).


 The human diet consists of three main parts:

 Carbohydrates: according to the correct principles of nutrition, 55% of a person’s daily energy consumption should be provided from these food sources. (Each gram of carbohydrate produces 4 kcal of energy)

 Fats: provide 30% of a person’s daily food energy.  Contains saturated and unsaturated fats.

 (Each gram of fat produces 9 kcal of energy.)

 Proteins: These substances provide up to 15% of a person’s daily energy, which are necessary to maintain the structure and function of many body organs.

 (Each gram of protein produces 4 kcal of energy)

 In addition to the macronutrients mentioned above, the diet consists of micronutrients including vitamins and minerals.

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Special foods

Special foods

 Special foods are foods that are specifically prepared for the scientific management of the diet of people who have distinct and special nutritional needs that cannot be met by using a normal diet. Special foods are designed, formulated and prepared in such a way that they fully meet the needs of people according to the special conditions they are in, and improve the health of the consumer through the complete supply of nutritional needs.

 Also, special foods provide the nutrients needed to manage the diet of people with underlying diseases or special medical conditions that cannot meet their nutritional needs with a normal diet.  These products can be taken directly orally or through a gavage tube or stoma.

 Fast meal as a special food due to its nutritional completeness and appropriateness can be used as the only source of food or along with other meals in normal conditions or in special nutritional conditions such as childhood and growing age. And also to be used in old age to promote health.